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Q181. Smurf is a simple attack based on IP spoofing and broadcasts. A single packet (such as an ICMP Echo Request) is sent as a directed broadcast to a subnet on the Internet. All the machines on that subnet respond to this broadcast. By spoofing the source IP Address of the packet, all the responses will get sent to the spoofed IP Address. Thus, a hacker can often flood a victim with hundreds of responses for every request the hacker sends out. 

Who are the primary victims of these attacks on the Internet today? 

A. IRC servers are the primary victim to smurf attacks 

B. IDS devices are the primary victim to smurf attacks 

C. Mail Servers are the primary victim to smurf attacks 

D. SPAM filters are the primary victim to surf attacks 

Answer: A

Explanation: IRC servers are the primary victim to smurf attacks. Script-kiddies run programs that scan the Internet looking for "amplifiers" (i.e. subnets that will respond). They compile lists of these amplifiers and exchange them with their friends. Thus, when a victim is flooded with responses, they will appear to come from all over the Internet. On IRCs, hackers will use bots (automated programs) that connect to IRC servers and collect IP addresses. The bots then send the forged packets to the amplifiers to inundate the victim. 


Q182. In which step Steganography fits in CEH System Hacking Cycle (SHC) 

A. Step 2: Crack the password 

B. Step 1: Enumerate users 

C. Step 3: Escalate privileges 

D. Step 4: Execute applications 

E. Step 5: Hide files 

F. Step 6: Cover your tracks 

Answer: ACDEF


Q183. Ivan is auditing a corporate website. Using Winhex, he alters a cookie as shown below. 

Before Alteration: Cookie:; ADMIN=no; y=1 ; time=10:30GMT ; 

After Alteration: Cookie:; ADMIN=yes; y=1 ; time=12:30GMT ; 

What attack is being depicted here? 

A. Cookie Stealing 

B. Session Hijacking 

C. Cross Site Scripting 

D. Parameter Manipulation 

Answer: D

Explanation: Cookies are the preferred method to maintain state in the stateless HTTP protocol. They are however also used as a convenient mechanism to store user preferences and other data including session tokens. Both persistent and non-persistent cookies, secure or insecure can be modified by the client and sent to the server with URL requests. Therefore any malicious user can modify cookie content to his advantage. There is a popular misconception that non-persistent cookies cannot be modified but this is not true; tools like Winhex are freely available. SSL also only protects the cookie in transit. 


Q184. When writing shellcodes, you must avoid _________________ because these will end the string. 

A. Null Bytes 

B. Root Bytes 

C. Char Bytes 

D. Unicode Bytes 

Answer: A

Explanation: The null character (also null terminator) is a character with the value zero, present in the ASCII and Unicode character sets, and available in nearly all mainstream programming languages. The original meaning of this character was like NOP — when sent to a printer or a terminal, it does nothing (some terminals, however, incorrectly display it as space). Strings ending in a null character are said to be null-terminated. 


Q185. Which of the following systems would not respond correctly to an nmap XMAS scan? 

A. Windows 2000 Server running IIS 5 

B. Any Solaris version running SAMBA Server 

C. Any version of IRIX 

D. RedHat Linux 8.0 running Apache Web Server 

Answer: A

Explanation: When running a XMAS Scan, if a RST packet is received, the port is considered closed, while no response means it is open|filtered. The big downside is that not all systems follow RFC 793 to the letter. A number of systems send RST responses to the probes regardless of whether the port is open or not. This causes all of the ports to be labeled closed. Major operating systems that do this are Microsoft Windows, many Cisco devices, BSDI, and IBM OS/400. 


Q186. WinDump is a popular sniffer which results from the porting to Windows of TcpDump for Linux. What library does it use ? 

A. LibPcap 

B. WinPcap 

C. Wincap 

D. None of the above 

Answer: B

Explanation: WinPcap is the industry-standard tool for link-layer network access in Windows environments: it allows applications to capture and transmit network packets bypassing the protocol stack, and has additional useful features, including kernel-level packet filtering, a network statistics engine and support for remote packet capture. 


Q187. Which Type of scan sends a packets with no flags set ? 

Select the Answer 

A. Open Scan 

B. Null Scan 

C. Xmas Scan 

D. Half-Open Scan 

Answer:

Explanation: 

The types of port connections supported are: 


Q188. Jason is the network administrator of Spears Technology. He has enabled SNORT IDS to detect attacks going through his network. He receives Snort SMS alerts on his iPhone whenever there is an attempted intrusion to his network. 

He receives the following SMS message during the weekend. 

An attacker Chew Siew sitting in Beijing, China had just launched a remote scan on Jason's network with the hping command. 

Which of the following hping2 command is responsible for the above snort alert? 

A. chenrocks:/home/siew # hping -S -R -P -A -F -U 192.168.2.56 -p 22 -c 5 -t 118 

B. chenrocks:/home/siew # hping -F -Q -J -A -C -W 192.168.2.56 -p 22 -c 5 -t 118 

C. chenrocks:/home/siew # hping -D -V -R -S -Z -Y 192.168.2.56 -p 22 -c 5 -t 118 

D. chenrocks:/home/siew # hping -G -T -H -S -L -W 192.168.2.56 -p 22 -c 5 -t 118 

Answer: A


Q189. On wireless networks, SSID is used to identify the network. Why are SSID not considered to be a good security mechanism to protect a wireless networks? 

A. The SSID is only 32 bits in length. 

B. The SSID is transmitted in clear text. 

C. The SSID is the same as the MAC address for all vendors. 

D. The SSID is to identify a station, not a network. 

Answer: B

Explanation: The SSID IS constructed to identify a network, it IS NOT the same as the MAC address and SSID’s consists of a maximum of 32 alphanumeric characters. 


Q190. The programmers on your team are analyzing the free, open source software being used to run FTP services on a server. They notice that there is an excessive number of fgets() and gets() on the source code. These C++ functions do not check bounds. 

What kind of attack is this program susceptible to? 

A. Buffer of Overflow 

B. Denial of Service 

C. Shatter Attack 

D. Password Attack 

Answer: A

Explanation: C users must avoid using dangerous functions that do not check bounds unless they've ensured that the bounds will never get exceeded. A buffer overflow occurs when you write a set of values (usually a string of characters) into a fixed length buffer and write at least one value outside that buffer's boundaries (usually past its end). A buffer overflow can occur when reading input from the user into a buffer, but it can also occur during other kinds of processing in a program.